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Signs of Dyslexia

Signs of Dyslexia

Common Signs of Dyslexia: Pre-School Children

The difficulties noted below are often associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. A qualified diagnostician can test a person to determine if he or she is truly dyslexic.

  • May talk later than most children.
  • May have difficulty pronouncing words, i.e., “busgetti” for “spaghetti”, “mawn lower” for “lawn mower”.
  • May be slow to add new vocabulary words.
  • May be unable to recall the right word.
  • May have difficulty with rhyming.
  • May have trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, days of the week, colors, shapes, how to spell and write his or her name.
  • May be unable to follow multi-step directions or routines.
  • Fine motor skills may develop more slowly than in other children.
  • May have difficulty telling and/or retelling a story in the correct sequence.
  • Often has difficulty separating sounds in words and blending sounds to make words.

Sources:
Basic Facts about Dyslexia: What Every Layperson Ought to Know – © Copyright 1993, 2nd ed. 1998. The International Dyslexia Association, Baltimore, MD.

Learning Disabilities: Information, Strategies, Resources – © Copyright 2000. Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities, a collaboration of leading U.S. non-profit learning disabilities organizations. Used with permission.

Common Signs of Dyslexia: K – 4th Grade Students

The difficulties noted below are often associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. A qualified diagnostician can test a person to determine if he or she is truly dyslexic.

  • May be slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds.
  • Has difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation).
  • Has difficulty spelling phonetically.
  • Makes consistent reading and spelling errors such as:
  • Letter reversals – “d” for “b” as in: “dog” for “bog”
  • Word reversals – “tip” for “pit”
  • Inversions – “m” for “w,” “u” for “n”
  • Transpositions – “felt” for “left”
  • Substitutions – “house” for “home”
  • May confuse small words – “at” for “to,” “said” for “and,” “does” for “goes.”
  • Relies on guessing and context.
  • May have difficulty learning new vocabulary.
  • May transpose number sequences and confuse arithmetic signs (+ – x / =).
  • May have trouble remembering facts.
  • May be slow to learn new skills; relies heavily on memorizing without understanding.
  • May have difficulty planning, organizing and managing time, materials and tasks.
  • Often uses an awkward pencil grip (fist, thumb hooked over fingers, etc.).
  • May have poor “fine motor” coordination.

Sources:
Basic Facts about Dyslexia: What Every Layperson Ought to Know – © Copyright 1993, 2nd ed. 1998. The International Dyslexia Association, Baltimore, MD.

Learning Disabilities: Information, Strategies, Resources – © Copyright 2000. Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities, a collaboration of leading U.S. non-profit learning disabilities organizations. Used with permission.

Common Signs of Dyslexia: 5th – 8th Grade Students

The characteristics noted below are often associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. A qualified diagnostician can test a person to determine if he or she is truly dyslexic.

    • Is usually reading below grade level.
    • May reverse letter sequences – “soiled” for “solid,” “left” for “felt.”
    • May be slow to discern and to learn prefixes, suffixes, root words, and other reading and spelling strategies.
    • May have difficulty spelling; spells same word differently on the same page.
    • May avoid reading aloud.
    • May have trouble with word problems in math.
    • May write with difficulty with illegible handwriting; pencil grip is awkward, fist-like or tight.
    • May avoid writing.
    • May have difficulty with written composition.
    • May have slow or poor recall of facts.
    • May have difficulty with comprehension.
    • May have trouble with non-literal language (idioms, jokes, proverbs, slang).
    • May have difficulty with planning, organizing and managing time, materials and tasks.

Sources:
Basic Facts about Dyslexia: What Every Layperson Ought to Know – © Copyright 1993, 2nd ed. 1998. The International Dyslexia Association, Baltimore, MD.

Learning Disabilities: Information, Strategies, Resources – © Copyright 2000. Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities, a collaboration of leading U.S. non-profit learning disabilities organizations. Used with permission. Page name: common-sign-5th-to-8th-grade.html

Common Signs of Dyslexia: High School and College Students

The difficulties noted below are often associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. A qualified diagnostician can test a person to determine if he or she is truly dyslexic.

      • May read very slowly with many inaccuracies.
      • Continues to spell incorrectly, frequently spells the same word differently in a single piece of writing.
      • May avoid reading and writing tasks.
      • May have trouble summarizing and outlining.
      • May have trouble answering open-ended questions on tests.
      • May have difficulty learning a foreign language.
      • May have poor memory skills.
      • May work slowly.
      • May pay too little attention to details or focus too much on them.
      • May misread information.
      • May have an inadequate vocabulary.
      • May have an inadequate store of knowledge from previous reading.
      • May have difficulty with planning, organizing and managing time, materials and tasks.

Sources:

Basic Facts about Dyslexia: What Every Layperson Ought to Know – © Copyright 1993, 2nd ed. 1998. The International Dyslexia Association, Baltimore, MD.

Learning Disabilities: Information, Strategies, Resources – © Copyright 2000. Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities, a collaboration of leading U.S. non-profit learning disabilities organizations. Used with permission.

Common Signs of Dyslexia: Adults

The difficulties noted below are often associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. A qualified diagnostician can test a person to determine if he or she is truly dyslexic.

      • May hide reading problems.
      • May spell poorly; relies on others to correct spelling.
      • Avoids writing; may not be able to write.
      • Often very competent in oral language.
      • Relies on memory; may have an excellent memory.
      • Often has good “people” skills.
      • Often is spatially talented; professions include, but are not limited, to engineers, architects, designers, artists and craftspeople, mathematicians, physicists, physicians (esp. surgeons and orthopedists), and dentists.
      • May be very good at “reading” people (intuitive).
      • In jobs is often working well below their intellectual capacity.
      • May have difficulty with planning, organization and management of time, materials and tasks.
      • Often entrepreneurs.

Sources:

Basic Facts about Dyslexia: What Every Layperson Ought to Know – © Copyright 1993, 2nd ed. 1998. The International Dyslexia Association, Baltimore, MD.

Learning Disabilities: Information, Strategies, Resources – © Copyright 2000. Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities, a collaboration of leading U.S. non-profit learning disabilities organizations. Used with permission.